These sometimes competing objectives need to be balanced in a manner that does not compromise the health and safety of those who work on or use the structure over its life, which includes the maintenance and/or demolition of the structure. The hazard analysis begins with the identification of key processes and sub-processes associated with the design. Hazards identified during the design of a product or process can be eliminated or controlled through judicious design decisions and engineering. Are the materials used to make the plant suitable? More information on how designers can communicate, cooperate and coordinate with other relevant stakeholders is outlined in Section 3 of these guidelines. However, just because something is a common practice doesn’t mean that it’s the most reasonably practicable option. What unusual situations or misuse could occur? Where user error is likely, higher order control measures such as elimination or substitution should be incorporated into the design. Streaming video and audio actually works. On request, provides information as described in Table 1 to those who sell or use the plant, structure or substance in the workplace. Designsafe (design safety engineering, inc., P.O. availability of support, help or emergency equipment outside normal work hours. ‘Health and Safety by Design’ is the process of managing health and safety risks throughout the lifecycle of structures, plant, substance or other products. There are general risks that should be considered when designing substances. If the plant is intended to lift and move people, equipment or materials, is it capable of doing this? Response time of system or plant too slow for making the next correct action. hazard alerts or other reports from: relevant statutory authorities, unions and business associations, specialists, professional bodies representing designers, and engineers’ research and testing done on similar designs. Operator controls can be activated accidentally. PCBUs must involve their workers and their representatives in work health and safety. Further detailed information may be needed on risks, for example by: A variety of risk assessment measures can be used to check the effectiveness of control measures. Designers could talk to workers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and health and safety specialists, and review relevant information, records and incident reports. A PCBU must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health and safety of workers, and that other people are not put at risk by work carried out as part of the conduct of the PCBU. Heavy equipment operator needs to be certified to operate the specific piece of heavy equipment by a … This meant that the trolley needed to be configurable to be used in two distinct modes of operation. What are some of the health and safety risks associated with my industry? It sets out the principles, duties and rights in relation to work health and safety. Health and Safety by Design principles should be embedded throughout the procurement  process. Also thanks to Stantec (formerly MWH), who were the Design Consultants for this project. designing components that can be partially finished off-site or prefabricated (so far as is reasonably practicable) to reduce exposure during construction to substances hazardous to health such as dusts, paints, glues etc. Once the mast is upright the hinged plates are securely bolted together. Finally, designsafe helps designers track progress towards implementing risk reduction strategies. PCBUs who are employing or engaging designers of structures, plant or substances to be used, or could reasonably be expected to be used, at work 3. people who make decisions about the design or redesign of structures, plant or substan… The removal of the deep manhole eliminated the safety concerns regarding working at depth during construction and operation. For plant under these Regulations, the information that the designer should provide to the manufacturer should include the verified drawings and certification. Take steps to make sure that essential modifications and maintenance are carried out and documented for future users. Sometimes workers may want to finish a job quickly or make a task easier. Mike can be reached by mail addressed to Occupational Hazards, by fax at 216-899-1581, or by electronic mail at mblotzer@mediaone.net. HSWA and building laws, technical standards and WorkSafe or industry guidance, industry statistics regarding injuries and incidents. Design and instructions on installing components are difficult to   understand. This may mean that productivity is increased in the long run. Is access to the plant necessary when installing, using and maintaining the plant or in an emergency? The program provides a status field to help the designer track progress in controlling the hazards by marking remedy actions as complete, in process or "to be done." The designers were asked to redesign the alignment to remove the deep manhole. The lists are quite comprehensive, providing excellent guidance to the designer. These people may include: The guidelines are for people who want to learn about designing with health and safety in mind. Designsafe is an impressive product that can be used not only proactively during design, but also for conducting hazard analyses of current operations and products. Monitor the effectiveness of all steps of the risk management process. Lack of guards over  critical operator  controls. Combining great design and risk management can be achieved with a team of capable people. However, I wasn"t sure what to expect for my individual cable connection, since that 1.5 Mbps bandwidth is shared with other users on the network. For more information on how to manage risk, see Figure 7 (hierarchy of controls) in Section 4 of these guidelines. The guarding, warning, training and PPE options prompt the designer to select one or more standard design options. A comprehensive set of reports is provided for reporting hazards by sub-process, hazard, risk level and user. Will there be people or other plant nearby? Identify solutions from regulations, good practice guidance and recognised standards. using BIM (building information modelling) and other forms of modelling to view the physical and functional characteristics of the proposed structure. In designsafe, "Eliminate by design" is the preferred method of control, followed by "Guard against hazard," "Warn of hazard," "Train user" and "Personal protective equipment (PPE)." Designers can use these applications to enable locations, structures and plant to be accurately visualised, sequences of activity to be realistically demonstrated and construction programmes simulated. I can watch television news with RealPlayer (www.real.com/) while surfing the web. adverse natural events such as cyclones, earthquakes and  floods, fact finding to determine possible health and safety risks, testing design assumptions to make sure that no aspect of it is based on incorrect beliefs or anticipations on the part of the designer, testing of structures or components specified for use in the construction, end use and maintenance, talking with key people who have the knowledge to control or influence the design (such as the architect, client, construction manager, engineers, project managers, and health and safety representatives), talking with key people who have the knowledge to identify and assess risks, when designing for the renovation or demolition of existing buildings, reviewing previous design documentation or information recorded about the design structure and any alterations to address health and safety   concerns, talking with professional industry and worker associations, and local authorities, who could help with risk assessments for the type of work and workplace. Although PCBUs can’t contract out of their health and safety duties, contractual agreements can be one way of setting out health and safety expectations for each PCBU. The southbound motorway approach into the northern portal of the tunnel has two lanes coming from each direction (east and west) merging into three lanes into the tunnel (ie three lanes merging into four lanes). This allows one plate to be affixed to the mast as before, and the other plate to be attached to the foundation threaded rods whilst the mast is still in the horizontal position. Noise Source Identification. To help consent authorities to identify and reduce crime opportunity during the assessment of development proposals, NSW Police has been asked to provide Safer by Design training to planners, designers, crime prevention officers and other government agencies. Practice Safety by Design Make safety a priority at the design stage. stretching or bending at an unnatural angle – leading to  injuries. preparing sketches, plans, calculations, specifications, instructions or drawings for a structure, including variations to a plan or changes to a structure. This design also ensures the mast base cannot slip when the mast is lowered for periodic instrument maintenance. PtD’s purpose is to promote this concept and highlight its importance in all business decisions. It comprised: Safety in Design (SiD) was implemented on the project from the tender design phase. At various points in the design process, designers should review design solutions to confirm the effectiveness of control measures and if necessary, redesign to eliminate the risks so far as is reasonably practicable. Lack of automatic corrective devices with fast fluctuations. Risk identification should take place as early as possible in this phase. Designers of new structures should design facilities such as lifting lugs on beams, or columns and protecting inserts in pre-cast panels, so they can be used for disassembly. The catchment being serviced was located on a ridge with the downstream network located at a much lower elevation (a drop of 22 m over a 90 m length). The nature of the structure should also be taken into account. Safe design incorporates ergonomics principles as well as good work design. specific conditions relating to the method of manufacture, instructions for fitting or refitting plant parts and their correct location, instruction where hot or cold parts or material may create a risk, specifications for components (eg ergonomically designed controls), specifications for proprietary items (eg electric motors), component specifications including drawings and tolerances, assembly procedures including specific tools or equipment to be used, details of hazards presented by materials during manufacturing, risks from exposure to dangerous parts before guards are installed, the proposed method for installing and commissioning, using special tools, jigs, fixtures and appliances necessary to minimise risk during installation. The traditional view of safety and health professionals is that engineers don"t want to include safety considerations in design. Thanks to John Wallaart (Principal Advisor Biological and Chemical, WorkSafe New Zealand) for providing this case study. A design should only be verified by a competent  person. Does the plant affect the safety of the area where it will be located? For trained personnel to conduct cleaning/routine maintenance when the machine is shut down and locked out. using checklists and referring to guidance material, providing enough clearance between the structure and overhead electric lines by burying, disconnecting or re-routing cables before construction  begins, designing components that can be made off-site or on the ground – this reduces falls from heights or being struck by falling objects, designing parapets to a height that complies with guardrail requirements, this eliminates the need to construct guardrails during construction and provides future edge protection for work at heights, using continual support beams for beam-to-column double  connections, this will provide continual support for beams during erection, and will reduce the risk of falls due to unexpected vibration, unexpected construction loads and misalignment, designing and constructing permanent stairways to help prevent falls and other hazards associated with temporary stairs and scaffolding, reducing the space between roof trusses and battens to reduce the risk of internal falls during roof  construction, choosing construction materials that are safe to handle, designing in aids for lifting during construction (eg provision of lifting lugs to roof-top air conditioning plants), limiting the size of pre-made wall panels where site access is restricted, including glass panels used for cladding or other purposes, selecting building materials, paints or other finishes that emit low levels of dangerous vapours, indicating, where practicable, the position and height of all electric lines to help with site safety procedures, maintaining safe smooth access, so far as is reasonably practicable, throughout the site for separately moving people, materials and vehicles. Risks may be identified by looking at the workplace and how work is carried out. Figure 2 below illustrates the people who may be affected by a PCBU’s work. … This was achieved through the installation of adjustable infill panels and the application of strict administrative controls. For further guidance on worker engagement, participation and representation see: More than one PCBU can have a duty around the same matter. The client or owner should be consulted at all design stages on risk management, safety in design decisions, and implementation of control measures. This can lead to workers making decisions that can lead to an increase in health and safety risks. Safe by Design is the integration of hazard identification and risk assessment methods early in the design process to eliminate or minimise the risks of harm throughout the construction and life of the product being designed. Product lifecycle. At that stage, the design is complete and can be handed to the client. Make sure that the safety recommendations and residual risks within the design are documented for users ‘downstream’ in the lifecycle. Should tell supplier of any faults that may create health and safety risks. Prepare information about risks to health and safety for the structure that remain after the design process. intended uses for the plant including prohibited uses, hazardous exposures including hazardous substances, exhausts, light, heat, noise, biological exposures, how environmental conditions affect using the plant, the results or documentation of tests carried out on the plant and  design, de-commissioning, dismantling and disposing of plant, known leftover risks that cannot be eliminated or sufficiently minimised by design, details of control measures to further minimise the risks associated with plant, information on administrative control measures. These changes were required in order to incorporate the shallow manhole and associated steeply graded pipe and high velocity flows. Selection of the tunnelling method and the decision to go with a Tunnel Boring machine (TBM) was driven in large part by risk mitigation and safety considerations. The initial design called for a 24 m deep manhole in order to comply with the Stormwater Code of Practice. hazardous exposures during installation or commissioning (eg hazardous gases, fumes, vapours, noise, vibration, light). mechanical (eg crushing, cutting, trapping, shearing and high pressure fluids), radiation – light, heat, electric fields, magnetic fields, radioactivity, substances hazardous to health including chemicals, chemical by-products, biological exposures (eg bacteria, molds, viruses). Figure 3 describes the roles of designers, the manufacturer of the design, the supplier of the manufactured product and the end-user. A cable modem links the computer to the television cable that is part of a computer network provided by the cable company. Here are some ways you can monitor and review your control measures: Their expertise will assist in identifying health and safety issues which may have been overlooked in the design. This is important for continuous improvement. Construction team in consultation with designer and client. Businesses who are in the supply chain have a duty to ensure that the work they do or the things they provide to other workplaces don't create health and safety risks. Installation of new stormwater infrastructure to increase capacity and make allowance for a special housing area and an additional catchment. When in the design process, Health and Safety by Design is most effective when applied at the earliest stage. Human error is not always the result of people being careless. Risk management involves identifying and then assessing which work risks to deal with. If this is not possible, the client and designer should include people with the right knowledge and experience. Check if there are widely used control measures (eg industry standards) for that risk. If a less hazardous version of the substance is designed that is not as effective as those currently being used, the health and safety benefits may outweigh this reduction in effectiveness. Does the change result in excessive schedule pressure that may compromise the quality of deliverables? In addition, they must engage under specified circumstances which include when identifying hazards and assessing risks to health and safety, and when making decisions about ways to manage health and safety risks. PCBUs have a general duty to engage with workers. They must also, so far as is reasonably practicable, consult, cooperate, and coordinate activities with each other. Does the change require changes to organisational  structures? Designers should consider as many factors as possible to manage the health and safety risks they present. It will also confirm whether the Health and Safety by Design intent is being achieved. This approach can encourage collaboration and professional  development. Table 8: Designer information that can be provided to the manufacturer. In addition, if a substance gains any of the above properties when it comes into contact with air or water, it is considered hazardous. Guarding options, for example, include fixed enclosures, adjustable enclosures, interlocked barriers, and presence-sensing devices. Plan the risk management process for other hazards. Designers can decide on the intended use of the plant, including its functions and limitations, by looking at: The first step in the risk management process is to identify all risks, so far as is reasonably practicable. The Building Code also does not provide guidance for some specialised structures such as major hazard facilities (eg refineries). Readout instrument blocked by arm when making  adjustment. Designsafe"s customers cut across a broad range of users, including manufacturers of integrated circuits, high-tech fabric, and automotive parts, as well as design and safety consultants and professionals. 1  Safe Work Australia Handbook Principles of Good Work Design (2015), Safe Work Australia Code of Practice Safe Design of Structures (2012) ,Safe Work Australia Guide for Safe Design of Plant (2014). Safety by design reduces exposure to product liability, lawsuits, and product recall campaigns. apply ergonomic design principles so risks to health and safety are managed, so far as is reasonably practicable, take into account the physical ability of workers including requirements for strength, reach, vision, and hearing, consider whether the plant could be misused or how a user’s uncontrolled physical movements could impact how the plant operates. While the new trolley configuration provided safer access for maintenance staff and observers during standard operation, we learned that we must remain vigilant regarding unintended uses of the trolley at all lifecycle stages, such as machine installation onsite. Cable Internet service finally arrived in my area, and I decided to take the plunge. Designers must provide adequate information to people who will be using the design. For more information on duty holders and their duties, see the Glossary or WorkSafe’s special guide Introduction to the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015. Their expertise will help with identifying health and safety issues which may have been overlooked in the design. Responsibility to consult, cooperate and coordinate with the designer also applies to contractors and sub-contractors who win a tender. Check that the evaluation of control measures is complete and accurate. Modification may mean partial or full demolition. The risks following an unexpected event or emergency due to inadequate egress, siting of assembly areas, and inadequate emergency services access. HSWA addresses such overlaps by providing that other legislative requirements may be considered when deciding if health and safety duties are being met. This  further improved visibility between  traffic in the merging two lanes. Not so, according to a study by Bruce Main and Allen C. Ward, published in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers" journal, Mechanical Engineering (August 1992). If this is not possible, the client and designer should include people with knowledge and experience in the construction and maintenance processes in the design safety reviews. Can the plant cause injury as a result of unexpected  start-up? Inherent safety by design is related to the option in which the device itself controls the risk (not depending on action by a third party. Can the plant cause injury from lack of guarding of moving  parts? Does the change impact on the design intent? Safety Technology & Analytics News is a twice-monthly enewsletter from EHS Today. Choosing inherently safer and healthier options should be the initial consideration when selecting which solution or technology to apply, even before entering the design process. health hazards (eg noise, vibration, hazardous fumes, gases or vapours created by or around the plant). A formal change approval process should be in place, and this should specifically require any health and safety implications to be considered. If similar tasks or processes apply for a number of projects, a general risk assessment model may be appropriate. Materials and finishes specified for the original structure may require special attention at the time of demolition, and any special requirements for the disposal and/or recycling of those materials or finishes should be described in the risk assessment documentation. To manage risk, you can reduce how serious the harm is if it does occur and/or reduce the chances of it occurring, or ideally both. You should focus on the most effective control measures. The principles of Safety by Design can be applied throughout the lifecycle of a project design. The Health and Safety at Work (Hazardous Substances) Regulations 2017 are a set of controls developed for each class of hazardous substance, and for particular phases of a substance’s life cycle. Figure 12 illustrates what is involved in this phase. It gives businesses the opportunity to become leaders in their industry and become the most desirable places to work. How to I manage supply issues for personal protective equipment (PPE)? are at or near a workplace, and are exposed to the plant, substance or structure, or whose health and safety may be affected by a work activity listed above. Example: An architect that designs a building has duties under HSWA to ensure health and safety, and must also ensure the design complies with the Building Act. Figure 10 illustrates these, and examples are given below. Evaluate unavoidable risks. For more information on duties for designers, see Section 3.3 of these guidelines. A designer should, so far as is reasonably practicable, make sure health and safety risks arising from erecting and installing plant are managed. Do the systems of work for the plant create risks? Appropriately sized amenities and facilities, including access, egress, space to perform tasks, fall prevention, confined spaces, surface treatments, sharp edges, height of features, roof pitch, material durability, site security, and traffic management. Available information incomplete, incorrect or not available in time. Feedback from users to help designers in improving their future designs for structures may be provided through: Section 4 of these guidelines outlines some ways that designers can review control measures to make sure that risks are being effectively managed. These risks may include: Designers should also consider the stability of plant when it is assembled, erected or installed, and whether special supports are required. Things to consider when identifying plant risks. Anticipating, identifying and controlling hazards in the design phase is easier, cheaper and more … Other legislation may affect work health and safety (eg the Gas Act 1992 and the Building Act 2004). Equipment shall be approved for use (accepted by the Electrical AHJ) and … Job requires user to make hurried judgements at critical times, without programmed back-up measures. This provides evidence the plant design has been verified under the Regulations. ENVID: Environmental hazard identification, significant hazards, hazardous substances or flammable materials, heavy or awkward prefabricated elements likely to create handling risks, temporary work required to construct or renovate the building as designed, features of the design essential to safe operation, methods of access where normal methods of securing scaffold are not available, any parts of the design where risks have been minimised but not eliminated. Consults,  cooperates and coordinates with themanufacturer/constructor of their design, so far as is reasonably practicable. persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBUs), designs, manufactures, imports, or supplies structures, substances or plant to be used in a workplace; or. Does the change require changes to work practices, such as moving to an outsourced model for maintenance, engineering or project management? Applying safety by design … To give unauthorised personnel a platform to observe operations while the machine is running. Designers should consider as many factors as possible to manage the health and safety risks they present. A designer should consider the risks created by the physical, environmental and operational conditions that plant and its users could be exposed to during its lifecycle. There was also a danger of falling from height through the machine and onto the floor. Or around the construction of such a deep manhole intended to lift move! 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